Review Article| Volume 35, ISSUE 1, P23-35, February 2023

Management of Bimaxillary Protrusion

Published:November 03, 2022DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Chu Q.S.
        • Schwartz G.
        • de Bono J.
        • et al.
        Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of lapatinib in combination with capecitabine in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
        J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 3753-3758
        • Xie F.
        • Teng L.
        • Jin X.
        • et al.
        Systematic analysis of clinical outcomes of anterior maxillary and mandibular subapical osteotomy with preoperative modeling in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.
        J Craniofac Surg. 2013; 24: 1980-1986
        • Chu Y.-M.
        • Bergeron L.
        • Chen Y.-R.
        Bimaxillary Protrusion : An Overview of the Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment.
        Semin Plast Surg. 2009; 23: 32-39
        • Blankenstein T.N.
        • Smith D.A.J.
        • Cheng A.J.L.
        A linear density on imaging: Non-contrast CT as a useful localisation method.
        Ann Acad Med Singap. 2021; 50: 660-661
        • Alessandrino F.
        • Smith D.A.
        • Spierling A.
        • et al.
        Cancer Clinical Trials: What Every Radiologist Wants to Know but Is Afraid to Ask.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021; 216: 1099-1111
        • Downs L.O.
        • Vawda S.
        • Bester P.A.
        • et al.
        Bimodal distribution and set point HBV DNA viral loads in chronic infection: retrospective analysis of cohorts from the UK and South Africa.
        Wellcome Open Res. 2020; 5: 113
        • Oueis R.
        • Waite P.D.
        • Wang J.
        • et al.
        Orthodontic-Orthognathic Management of a patient with skeletal class II with bimaxillary protrusion, complicated by vertical maxillary excess: A multi-faceted case report of difficult treatment management issues.
        Int Orthod. 2020; 18: 178-190
        • Ogundipe O.
        • Otuyemi O.
        Surgical and orthodontic treatment methods in patients with bimaxillary protrusion-a systematic review.
        J West Afr Coll Surgeons. 2017; 7: 31
        • Ahmad Nasir S.
        • Ramli R.
        • Abd Jabar N.
        Predictors of enophthalmos among adult patients with pure orbital blowout fractures.
        PloS one. 2018; 13: e0204946
        • Chen G.
        • Teng F.
        • Xu T.-M.
        Distalization of the maxillary and mandibular dentitions with miniscrew anchorage in a patient with moderate Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2016; 149: 401-410
        • Solem R.C.
        • Marasco R.
        • Guiterrez-Pulido L.
        • et al.
        Three-dimensional soft-tissue and hard-tissue changes in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013; 144: 218-228
        • Ramos C.J.
        Treatment of dental and skeletal bimaxillary protrusion in patient with Angle Class I malocclusion.
        Dental Press J Orthodontics. 2013; 18: 130-137
        • Liu R.
        • Hou W.-B.
        • Yang P.-Z.
        • et al.
        Severe skeletal bimaxillary protrusion treated with micro-implants and a self-made four-curvature torquing auxiliary: A case report.
        World J Clin cases. 2021; 9: 722
        • Bhatia S.
        • Jayan B.
        • Chopra S.S.
        Effect of retraction of anterior teeth on pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone position in Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion.
        Med J Armed Forces India. 2016; 72: S17-S23
        • Alqahtani N.
        • Alshammari R.
        • Almoammar K.
        • et al.
        Post-orthodontic cephalometric variations in bimaxillary protrusion cases managed by premolar extraction—A retrospective study.
        Niger J Clin Pract. 2019; 22: 1530
      1. Kim J.R., Son W.S., Lee S.G. A retrospective analysis of 20 surgically corrected bimaxillary protrusion patients. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 17 (1), 2002, 23-7. PMID: 11934052.

        • Tan S.K.
        • Leung W.K.
        • Tang A.T.H.
        • et al.
        Facial profile study using 3-dimensional photographs to assess esthetic preferences of Hong Kong Chinese orthognathic patients and laypersons.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2022; 161: e105-e113
        • Farrow A.L.
        • Zarrinnia K.
        • Azizi K.
        Bimaxillary protrusion in black Americans—an esthetic evaluation and the treatment considerations.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993; 104: 240-250
        • Huang Y.-P.
        • Li W-r
        Correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients after orthodontic treatment.
        Angle Orthodontist. 2015; 85: 690-698
        • Baek S.-H.
        • Kim B.-H.
        Determinants of successful treatment of bimaxillary protrusion: orthodontic treatment versus anterior segmental osteotomy.
        J Craniofac Surg. 2005; 16: 234-246
        • Kyung H.-M.
        Overview development of orthodontic micro-implants for intraoral anchorage.
        J Clin Orthod. 2003; 37: 321-328
        • Villela H.M.
        Treatment of bimaxillary protrusion using intra-and extra-alveolar miniscrews associated to self-ligating brackets system.
        Dental Press J Orthod. 2020; 25: 66-84
        • Chung K.-R.
        • Choo H.
        • Kim S.-H.
        • et al.
        Timely relocation of mini-implants for uninterrupted full-arch distalization.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010; 138: 839-849
        • Drobocky O.B.
        • Smith R.J.
        Changes in facial profile during orthodontic treatment with extraction of four first premolars.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1989; 95: 220-230
        • Keating P.J.
        The Treatment of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A cephalometric consideration of changes in the inter-incisal angle and soft tissue profile.
        Br J Orthod. 1986; 13: 209-220
        • Luppanapornlarp S.
        • Johnston Jr., L.E.
        The effects of premolar-extraction: a long-term comparison of outcomes in “clear-cut” extraction and nonextraction Class II patients.
        Angle Orthodontist. 1993; 63: 257-272
        • Lewis S.J.
        Bimaxillary Protrusion.
        Angle Orthodontist. 1943; 13: 51-59
        • Xia K.
        • Wang J.
        • Yu L.
        • et al.
        Dentofacial characteristics and age in association with incisor bony support in adult female patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion.
        Orthod Craniofac Res. 2021; 24: 585-592
        • Nielsen A.M.W.
        • Ojkic D.
        • Dutton C.J.
        • et al.
        Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 infection in a captive Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): presumed natural transmission from free-ranging wild waterfowl.
        Avian Pathol. 2018; 47: 58-62
        • Gupta A.
        • Sharma S.D.
        • Kataria V.
        • et al.
        Experience with Anterior Maxillary Osteotomy Techniques: A Prospective Study of 20 Cases.
        J Maxill Oral Surg. 2020; 19: 119-124
        • Sakthi S.V.
        • Vikraman B.
        • Shobana V.
        • et al.
        Corticotomy-assisted retraction: an outcome assessment.
        Indian J Dental Res. 2014; 25: 748
        • Shimazaki K.
        • Otsubo K.
        • Yonemitsu I.
        • et al.
        Severe unilateral scissor bite and bimaxillary protrusion treated by horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy combined with mid-alveolar osteotomy.
        Angle Orthodontist. 2014; 84: 374-379
        • Bhagat S.K.
        • Kannan S.
        • Babu M.
        • et al.
        Soft Tissue Changes Following Combined Anterior Segmental Bimaxillary Orthognathic Procedures.
        J Maxillofacial Oral Surg. 2019; 18: 93-99
        • Banabilh S.
        • Samsudin A.
        • Suzina A.
        • et al.
        Facial profile shape, malocclusion and palatal morphology in Malay obstructive sleep apnea patients.
        Angle Orthodontist. 2010; 80: 37-42
        • Cohen-Lévy J.
        • Contencin P.
        • Couloigner V.
        Cranio-facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea: the role of dento-facial orthopedics.
        J Dentofacial Anom Orthod. 2009; 12: 108-120
        • Anand A.M.
        • Bharadwaj R.
        • Krishnaswamy N.R.
        Role of facial pattern in patients with obstructive sleep apnea among the South Indian (Chennai) population: a cross-sectional study.
        J Dent Sleep Med. 2020; 7
        • Capistrano A.
        • Cordeiro A.
        • Capelozza Filho L.
        • et al.
        Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea.
        Dental Press J Orthodontics. 2015; 20: 60-67
        • Aldosari M.A.
        • Alqasir A.M.
        • Alqahtani N.D.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the airway space changes after extraction of four second premolars and orthodontic space closure in adult female patients with bimaxillary protrusion–A retrospective study.
        Saudi dental J. 2020; 32: 142-147
        • Chen Y.
        • Hong L.
        • Wang C.L.
        • et al.
        Effect of large incisor retraction on upper airway morphology in adult bimaxillary protrusion patients.
        Angle Orthod. 2012; 82: 964-970